Figurat Historike Shqiptare

MOTHER TERESA (GONXHE BOJAXHIU) 1910 - 1997

Mother Teresa was born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in Skopje, Macedonia, on August 27, 1910. Her family was of Albanian descent. At the age of twelve, she felt strongly the call of God

 
 

Mother Teresa – Biography

 

Mother Teresa was born Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu in Skopje, Macedonia, on August 27, 1910. Her family was of Albanian descent. At the age of twelve, she felt strongly the call of God. She knew she had to be a missionary to spread the love of Christ. At the age of eighteen she left her parental home in Skopje and joined the Sisters of Loreto, an Irish community of nuns with missions in India. After a few months' training in Dublin she was sent to India, where on May 24, 1931, she took her initial vows as a nun. From 1931 to 1948 Mother Teresa taught at St. Mary's High School in Calcutta, but the suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls made such a deep impression on her that in 1948 she received permission from her superiors to leave the convent school and devote herself to working among the poorest of the poor in the slums of Calcutta. Although she had no funds, she depended on Divine Providence, and started an open-air school for slum children. Soon she was joined by voluntary helpers, and financial support was also forthcoming. This made it possible for her to extend the scope of her work.

On October 7, 1950, Mother Teresa received permission from the Holy See to start her own order, "The Missionaries of Charity", whose primary task was to love and care for those persons nobody was prepared to look after. In 1965 the Society became an International Religious Family by a decree of Pope Paul VI.

Today the order comprises Active and Contemplative branches of Sisters and Brothers in many countries. In 1963 both the Contemplative branch of the Sisters and the Active branch of the Brothers was founded. In 1979 the Contemplative branch of the Brothers was added, and in 1984 the Priest branch was established.

The Society of Missionaries has spread all over the world, including the former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries. They provide effective help to the poorest of the poor in a number of countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, and they undertake relief work in the wake of natural catastrophes such as floods, epidemics, and famine, and for refugees. The order also has houses in North America, Europe and Australia, where they take care of the shut-ins, alcoholics, homeless, and AIDS sufferers.

The Missionaries of Charity throughout the world are aided and assisted by Co-Workers who became an official International Association on March 29, 1969. By the 1990s there were over one million Co-Workers in more than 40 countries. Along with the Co-Workers, the lay Missionaries of Charity try to follow Mother Teresa's spirit and charism in their families.

Mother Teresa's work has been recognised and acclaimed throughout the world and she has received a number of awards and distinctions, including the Pope John XXIII Peace Prize (1971) and the Nehru Prize for her promotion of international peace and understanding (1972). She also received the Balzan Prize (1979) and the Templeton and Magsaysay awards.

From Nobel Lectures, Peace 1971-1980, Editor-in-Charge Tore Frängsmyr, Editor Irwin Abrams, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1997

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/Nobel Lectures. The information is sometimes updated with an addendum submitted by the Laureate. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.

 

Mother Teresa died on September 5, 1997.

 

Background and early political career

 

Born as Ahmet Muhtar Bey Zogolli, he changed his family name to Zogu, meaning "bird" in the Albanian language, droping the Turkish suffix "olli (oğlu)", meaning "son of".

Ahmet Zogolli was born in Castle Burgajet, Albania, third son to Xhemal Pasha Zogolli and Sadijé Toptani. Zog was educated at Galatasaray College in Constantinople [1]. His family was a beylik family, with feudal authority over the region of Mat. The family claimed descent from the Skanderbegs. Their lands were in the same districts as Skanderbeg's family's had been and certainly the Zogu family had deep roots in indigeneous clannish nobility, but no historically attested genealogy has been shown of his alleged lineage from Middle Ages (as opposed to his wife's pedigree from Albania).

Upon his father's death in 1911, Ahmet Zogolli at age sixteen became governor of Mat. He was appointed over his elder brother Xhelal Bey, who had been deemed mentally unfit.

As a young man during the First World War, Zog supported the cause of Austria-Hungary. He was detained at Vienna in 1917 and 1918 and in Rome in 1918 and 1919 before returning to Albania in 1919. During his time in Vienna, he grew to enjoy a Western European lifestyle, and was rumoured to be very popular among the Viennese women.

Upon his return, Zog became involved in the political life of the fledgling Albanian government that had been created in 1920. He became leader of a major reformist party, and his political supporters included many southern feudal landowners (called beys, Turkish for "village chieftain", the social group to which he belonged) and noble families in the north, along with merchants, industrialists, and intellectuals. During the early 1920s, Zog served as Governor of Shkodër (1920-1), Minister of the Interior (March-November 1920, 1921-1924), and chief of the Albanian military (1921-1922). His primary rivals were Luigj Gurakuqi and Fan S. Noli.

It was a dangerous time to be an Albanian politician. In 1923, Zog was shot and wounded in parliament. A crisis arose in 1924 after the assassination of one of Zog's industrialist opponent, Avni Rustemi (the man who in 1920 assassinated Esad Pasha Toptani ); in the aftermath, a leftist revolt was raised by Noli, which forced Zog, along with 600 of his allies, into exile in June 1924. He returned to Albania with the assistance of Yugoslav forces and Yugoslavia-based White Russian troops, and became Prime Minister.

 

President of Albania

Zog was officially elected to the post of President of Albania by the Constituent Assembly on January 21, 1925, taking office on February 1. Zog's government followed the European model, though large parts of Albania still maintained a social structure unchanged from the days of Ottoman rule, and most villages were serf plantations run by the beys. A Muslim himself, Zog's reforms included the prohibition of veils and prohibitions against cruelty to animals. Zog's principal ally during this period was Italy, which loaned his government funds in exchange for a greater role in Albania's fiscal policy. During Zog's presidency, serfdom was gradually eliminated. For the first time since the death of Skanderbeg, Albania began to emerge as a nation, rather than a feudal patchwork of local beyliks. His administration was marred by disputes with Kosovar leaders, primarily Hasan Prishtina and Bajram Curri.

During his presidency, many referred to him as "king", as they had no idea what the word "president" meant.

 

Albanian King

In September 1, 1928 Zogu was crowned King of the Albanians "by the will of the people" (Mbret i Shqiptarëve in Albanian). Afterwards he was also declared Field Marshal of the Royal Albanian Army on September 1, 1928. He proclaimed a constitutional monarchy similar to the contemporary regime in Italy. He created a strong police force and instituted the Zogist salute (flat hand over the heart with palm facing downwards). He claimed to be a successor of Skanderbeg, a lineage which was correct to an extent. Zog hoarded gold coins and precious stones, which were used to back Albania's first paper currency.

Zog's mother, Sadijé, was declared Queen Mother of the Albanians, and Zog also gave his brother and sisters royal status as Prince and Princesses Zogu. One of his sisters, Senijé, Princess Zogu (1908-1969), married His Imperial Highness Prince Shehzade Mehmed Abid Efendi of Turkey, a son of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. His only nephew, Tati, was proclaimed His Highness Prince of Kosovo; at this stage King Zog had no issue and the Prince of Kosovo was being groomed to succeed Zog.

Zog attempted to further reinforce his regime's legitimacy by ruling as a constitutional monarch. His kingdom's constitution forbade any prince of the royal house from serving as Prime Minister or a member of the Cabinet and contained provisions for the potential extinction of the royal family. Ironically, in light of later events, the constitution also forbade the union of the Albanian throne with that of any other country. Under the Zogist constitution, the King of the Albanians, like the King of the Belgians, exercised royal powers only after taking an oath before Parliament; Zog himself swore an oath on the Bible and the Qur'an in an attempt to unify the country.

Zog's regime brought stability to Albania and the king organized an educational system. He also attempted to modernize the Albanian military, though the costs involved in this project were high.

 

Life as king

Although born as an aristocrat and hereditary bey, HM King Zog was somewhat ignored by other monarchs in Europe because he had no links to European royal bloodlines, although he did have strong connections with Muslim Royal families in the Middle-East and Egypt. As King he was, however, honoured by the governments of Italy, Luxembourg, Egypt, Yugoslavia, France, Rumania, Greece, Belgium, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Austria [[2]]. In the absence of nightclubs or theatre in Tirana, the king spent much of his time playing poker, usually with his sisters. He was also a great lover of perfumed cigarettes, and smoked about 150 a day. His household expenses made up nearly two percent of the national budget.

Zog had been engaged to the daughter of Shefqet Bey Verlaci before he became king. Soon after his coronation, however, he broke off the engagement. According to traditional customs of blood vengeance prevalent in Albania at the time, Verlaci had the right to kill Zog. The king made more than a few enemies - rumour had it that he was the subject of over 600 blood vendettas in addition to Verlaci's - and he frequently surrounded himself with a personal guard and avoided public appearances. He also feared that he might be poisoned, so the Queen Mother assumed supervision of the royal kitchen.

During his reign he is said to have survived over 55 assassination attempts. One of these occurred in 1931 while Zog was visiting a Vienna opera house for a performance of Pagliacci. The attackers struck whilst Zog was getting into his car, and he survived by drawing his own pistol (which he always carried) and firing back at his would-be assassins. This is the only occasion in modern history when a Head of State has returned fire with potential assassins.

In April 1938, Zog married Countess Geraldine Apponyi de Nagy-Apponyi, a Roman Catholic aristocrat who was half Hungarian and half American. Their only child, HRH Crown Prince Leka Zogu, was born in Albania on April 5, 1939.

 

ENVER HOXHA (albanian dictator) (1908 - 1985)

Enver Hoxha / Fjalimi per popullin shqiptar te Kosoves

Shikonie videon ku mban fjalen Enver Hoxha, pastaj benja vet krahasimin mes Enver Hoxhes dhe lidereve te sotem shtriga.. A paramendonie se ne cfare kohe ka jetuar xhaxhi Enver. Mes kulcedrave sllavo-ortodoks-grek!

Enver Hoxha eshte historia jone. Vizioni i tij per sllavet e Jugut eshte realitet i diteve tona. Jo rastesisht Enveri e permend se pari luginen e Vardarit. Jo rastesisht ja nis "QE NGA SHKUPI DHE KACANIKU" pasi vetem xhaxhi Enver e ka kuptuar rendesine e pozites gjeostrategjike te interesave te krejt shqiptareve ne Ballkan.

 

Ju groshagji te sotshem politikanesh, qofte ne Tirane fasule, qofte ne Prishtine pasul, qofte ne Tetove groshe, nje porosi e keni: MOS NAJ PREKNI MEGJET E KARADAKUT!

 

NUK JU PELQEN KJO, OSE JU PELQEN, JEPE NJE KOMET KETU, MOS JU TUT ENVER HOXHES, TUTJU SALKES QE E BENI SHKRET SHQYPNIN!

 

GJERGJ KASTRIOT SKENDERBEG 1405 - 1468

 

Gjergj (Albanian: George) Kastrioti was born in Kruja from Gjon Kastrioti, lord of Middle Albania, who was obliged by the Ottomans to pay tribute to the Empire. To assure the fidelity of local rulers the Sultan used to take their sons as hostage and bring them up in his court. Gjergj Kastrioti attended military school in the Ottoman Empire and was named Iskander Bey which in Turkish means Lord Alexandre.

He was distinguished as one of the best officers in several Ottoman campaigns both in Asia Minor and in Europe, and the Sultan appointed him General. He even fought against Greeks, Serbs and Hungarians, and some sources says that he used to maintain secret links with Raguse, Venice, Vladislas of Hungary et Alphonse V of Naples. Sultan Murat II gave him the title Vali which made him the General Governor of some provinces in central Albania. He was respected everywhere but he missed his country.

In 1443, during the battle against the Hungarians of Hunyadi in Nish (in present day Serbia), he abandoned the Ottoman Army and captured Kruja, his father's seat in middle Albania. Above the castle he rose the Albanian flag, a red flag with the black double-headed eagle, the present-day Albanian flag, and pronounced to his countrymen the famous words: "I have not brought you liberty, I found it here, among you". He managed to unite all Albanian princes at the town of Lezha (League of Lezha, 1444) and united them under his command to fight against the Turks.

During the next 25 years he fought, with forces rarely exceeding 20,000 against the most powerful army of that time and defeated it for 25 years. In 1450 the Turkish army was led by the Sultan Murad II in person, who died after his defeat in the way back. Two other times, in 1466 and 1467, Mehmed II, the conqueror of Constantinople, led the Turkish army himself against Skenderbeg and failed too. The Ottoman Empire attempted to conquer Kruja 24 times and failed all 24 of them.

Skenderbeg's military successes evoked a good deal of interest and admiration of the Papal state, Venice and Naples, themselves threatened by the growing Ottoman power across the Adriatic. The Albanian warrior played his hand with a good deal of political and diplomatic skill in his dealings with the three Italian states. Hoping to strengthen and expand the last Christian bridgehead in the Balkans, they provided Skenderbeg with money, supplies and occasionally with troops. One of his most powerful and consistent supporters was Alfonso the Magnanimous (1416-1458), the Aragone king of Naples, who decided to take Skenderbeg under his protection as vassal in 1451, shortly after the latter had scored his second victory against Murad II. In addition to financial assistance, the King of Naples undertook to supply the Albanian leader with troops, military equipment as well as with sanctuary for himself and his family if such a need should arise.As an active defender of the Christian cause in the Balkans, Skenderbeg was also closely involved with the politics of four Popes, one of them being Pius II (1458-1464) or Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, the Renaissance humanist, writer and diplomat.

Profoundly shaken by the fall of Constantinople in 1453, Pius II tried to organise a new crusade against the Turks; consequently he did his best to come to Skenderbeg's aid, as two of his predecessors Nicholas V and Calixtus III, had done before him. This policy was continued by his successor, Paul II,(1464-1473).They gave him the title Athleta Christi.

For a quarter of a century he and his country prevented Turks from invading Catholic Western Europe.

After his death from natural causes in 1468 in Lezha, his soldiers resisted the Turks for the next 12 years. In 1480 Albania was finally conquered by the Ottoman Empire. When the Turks found the grave of Skenderbeg in Saint Nicholas church of Lezha, they opened it and held his bones like talismans for luck. In 1480 the Turks invaded Italy and conquered the City of Otranto.

Skenderbeg's posthumous renown was by no means confined to his own country. Voltaire thought the Byzantine Empire would have survived had it possesed a leader of his quality. A number of poets and composers have also drawn inspiration from his military career. The French sixteenth-century poet Ronsard wrote a poem about him and so did the nineteenth-century American poet Longfellow. Antonio Vivaldi, too, composed an opera entitled Scanderbeg.

Skenderbeg today is the National Hero of Albania. Many museums and monuments are raised in his honour around Albania, and among them the Museum of Skenderbeg in his famous castle in Kruja. 

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